The Directorate-General of Museums aims to favour research and the dissemination of knowledge on the Italian cultural heritage kept in museums and presented in cultural places, in order to share their values and originality with the rest of the world.
It works to ensure complete access to and use of cultural heritage, monitoring the efficiency and quality of the services available to the public.
It intends to loyalise visitors to museums and cultural places, using new technologies and social media.
It sustains the birth of territorial networks that directly involve various players, each for their own skills, in order to fully assess the “widespread museum” which characterises the Italian cultural landscape.
It promotes innovative management systems, including interactive elements, for museums and cultural places.
It plans the future through the conservation of heritage and promotion of creativity, the quality of life and the cultural diversities present on the territory.
What does the Directorate-General do
01 It guides and coordinates Italian state museums
It performs functions of address and control, drawing up guidelines in compliance with the highest international standards, helping Italian museums to grow and improve.
02 It enhances state cultural heritage
It performs functions and tasks to make the most of state cultural heritage, favouring policies for the integration of cultural heritage and the landscape at territorial level.
03 It regulates and favours access to structures
It draws up guidelines on opening hours, ticketing and policies for admission prices to museums and state cultural places.
04 It works on the territory
It takes care of coordination among the regions, public authorities and private organisations, offering technical and administrative support at national level and promoting the formation of local museum centres for the integrated management of the activities of museums and cultural places.
05 It takes care of cultural projects
It promotes agreements and facilitates the exchange of works at international level, establishing the criteria for the loan of assets and declaring the relevant cultural or scientific interest of exhibitions, events and displays.
06 It monitors quality
It constantly updates the service charter, draws up qualitative parameters in compliance with the ICOM standards and ensures observance of the guidelines by state museums.
07 It encourages active participation
It draws up and publishes an annual report on the management of museum services, promoting and managing awareness projects and public fundraising campaigns of cultural interest.
Director-General of Museums
+ 39 06 6723 4930 email@example.com
Massimo Osanna – full Professor of Classical Archaeology at the University of Napoli “Federico II” – is Director General of Museums at the Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism. He received his PhD in Archaeology from the University of Perugia, where he studied the greek colonization in Italy and a PhD in History from the University of San Marino, studing the religion of the ancient Peloponnesos. He carried out researches at the Italian Archaeological School of Athens and the University of Heidelberg (fellowship Alexander von Humboldt). He undertook his professional activity at the University of Basilicata where he was a Lecturer in classical archeology (since 1994), Associate professor (since 2000) and Director of the School of Specialization in Archaeological Heritage in Matera (2002-2014). He was also Superintendent for the Archaeological Heritage of Basilicata (2007-2008); Directeur d’etude (2007) at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes in Paris (2007); Professor of Classical Archeology at the University of Heidelberg (2010); research fellow Alexander von Humboldt at the Humboldt-Universität Berlin (2011); visiting professor at the École Normale Supérieure, Paris (2013). Between 2014 and 2020 he has been the Director of the Archaeological Park of Pompei.
- Massimo Alfani Trustee + 39 06 6723 4403 room 161 - 1° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- Nicoletta Tintisona Director’s secretariat + 39 06 6723 4979 room 162 - 1° floor email@example.com
- Felicina Di Battista Director’s secretariat + 39 06 6723 4941 room 162 - 1° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- Maria Pia Vincenti Ales SpA Director’s secretariat + 39 06 6723 4918 room 161 - 1° floor email@example.com
- Francesca Rossi Director’s secretariat +39 06 6723 4924 room 162 - 1° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- Valeria Esposito Director’s secretariat +39 06 6723 4180 room 162 - 1° floor email@example.com
- Enrico Rinaldi Ales SpA Staff of the Director General +39 06 6723 room 161 - 1° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- Roberto Vannata Staff of the Director General +39 06 6723 4131 room 161 - 1° floor email@example.com
- Maurizio Pizzuto INSTITUTIONAL COMMUNICATION COORDINATOR AND PRESS OFFICE + 39 06 6723 4780 room 340 - 3° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- LUCIANO CAMPAGNOLO IT OFFICE COORDINATOR + 39 06 6723 4933 room 340 - 3° floor email@example.com
- Maria Rosaria Lo Muzio Public Works and security planning +39 06 6723 4841 room 125 - 1° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- Giulio Moretti It platform National Musem System +39 06 6723 room 330 - 3° floor email@example.com
The Directorate-General is organised into two offices: Department I which takes care of General Affairs, and Department II which takes care of Museum management and development.
Museum Collections. This Department handles general affairs, plans the budget, takes care of personnel management and settles any disputes.
ORGANISATION AND BUDGET
It draws up explanatory directives and circulars on matters for which Directorate-General is responsible.
It prepares the elements for drawing up regulatory acts and the response to parliamentary acts of address, control and audits.
It takes care of relations with the Court of Auditors and the links up with the O.I.V. for the fulfilment and monitoring of advertising and transparency obligations.
It supplies support to the Director-General in the supervision of museums with special autonomy and the operation of the Technical-scientific committee for museums and the cultural economy.
It takes care of the preliminary activities for operations aimed at financial rebalancing between institutions and state-owned cultural places.
Using the databases prepared by the Directorate-General of Organisation, it draws up parameters and quantities, procedures and IT models aimed at assessing the management of the institutions and of state-owned cultural places, in terms of expense, efficiency and effectiveness.
It promotes the disbursement of liberal donations by members of the public.
EXHIBITIONS AND DISPLAYS IN ITALY AND ABROAD
It takes care of cultural agreements with prestigious Italian and foreign institutions, aimed at the organisation of exhibitions and displays; the declaration of considerable cultural or scientific interest of cultural heritage exhibitions or displays; as well as the fulfilment of obligations relating to the purchase of cultural elements or assets, with the approval of the pertinent Technical-scientific committee.
It takes on the risks to which the cultural assets for which the participation in exhibitions or displays has been authorised in Italy or abroad are exposed (in compliance with article 48, paragraph 5, of the Cultural heritage and landscape Code).
It takes care of the intangible heritage rights due to the State from exhibitions, displays or events.
It supports the Director-General, after talking to the pertinent consultation bodies, in the preparation of the criteria and guidelines for the receipt on loan or deposit of things or assets from institutions and cultural places (in compliance with art. 44 of the Code).
Felice Pier Carlo Iacobellis
Director of Department I
+ 39 06 6723 4978 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Alessia TRAMONTE Ales SpA Human resources +39 06 6723 4235 room 123 - 1° floor email@example.com
- Maria Borgia Secretary + 39 06 6723 4990 room 128 - 1° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- Manuele Orlando Ales SpA Secretary + 39 06 6723 4913 room 128 - 1° floor email@example.com
- Patrizia Zotti Economic planning, accounting and supervision of autonomous museums +39 06 6723 4873 room 127 - 1° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- DOMENICA BENZI Economic planning, accounting and supervision of autonomous museums +39 06 6723 room 126 - 1° floor email@example.com
- Alessandra Hinna Economic planning, accounting and supervision of autonomous museums +39 06 6723 4223 room 127 - 1° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- Christian Donnini Ales SpA Economic planning, accounting and supervision of autonomous museums + 39 06 6723 4942 room 124 - 1° floor email@example.com
- Isabella Spera Ales SpA Economic planning, accounting and supervision of autonomous museums + 39 06 6723 4987 room 127 - 1° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- FRANCESCA CARLINI Ales SpA Economic planning, accounting and supervision of autonomous museums +39 06 6723 4615 room 124 - 1° floor email@example.com
- Daniele Casula Ales SpA Economic planning, accounting and supervision of autonomous museums +39 06 6723 room 127 - 1° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- Pierangelo Colella Ales SpA Economic planning, accounting and supervision of autonomous museums +39 06 6723 4103 room 124 - 1° floor email@example.com
- Giulio Conti Ales SpA Economic planning, accounting and supervision of autonomous museums +39 06 6723 4927 room 125 - 1° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- Emanuela Lombi Ales SpA Economic planning, accounting and supervision of autonomous museums +39 06 6723 room 125 - 1° floor email@example.com
- Lucrezia Giorgi Ales SpA Economic planning, accounting and supervision of autonomous museums +39 06 6723 room 125 - 1° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- Stefania Mileto General affairs and public tender + 39 06 6723 4988 room 126 - 1° floor email@example.com
- Lorenzo Scafetti Economic planning, accounting and supervision of autonomous museums + 39 06 6723 4481 room 128 - 1° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- Giuseppe Tierno General affairs and public tender +39 06 6723 4456 room 126 - 1° floor email@example.com
- Caterina Sturdà Ales SpA General affairs and public tender +39 06 6723 4619 room 125 - 1° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- Ines Lopez Ales SpA General affairs and public tender +39 06 6723 4690 room 122 - 1° floor email@example.com
- Martina Sales Ales SpA General affairs and public tender +39 06 6723 4969 room 122 - 1° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- Ketti Maria Germana Muscarella Purchasing and state guarantee +39 06 6723 4605 room 343 - 3° floor email@example.com
- Martina Corsi Ales SpA Purchasing and state guarantee + 39 06 6723 4995 room 343 - 3° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
Management and development of museums and cultural places. It coordinates the activities performed by the decentralised structures and institutions with special autonomy.
INTEGRATED TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT
It promotes, also through an agreement with Regions, local authorities and other public and private parties, the formation of museum poles for the integrated management and coordination of the activity of museums and cultural places within the same territory.
STANDARDISED LEVELS OF QUALITY
It draws up models, standards and guidelines for the management and development of institutions and cultural places, with particular regard to museums, in compliance with the standards drawn up by ICOM.
It draws up qualitative and quantitative parameters, procedures and IT models aimed at assessing the quality of use and development services provided by institutions and state cultural places.
ACCESS AND SERVICES FOR THE PUBLIC
It draws up guidelines on opening hours, ticketing and policies for admission prices to museums and state cultural places, also in combined form.
It prepares models for calls for tender and agreements for the assignment of services for the public, as well as for the formation of legal subjects for the development of cultural heritage.
It draws up the annual report on the management of services for the public at institutions and cultural places.
It draws up and promotes projects aimed at the increase in the tourist offering destined to the fruition of cultural heritage, with particular reference to the sites and elements declared to cultural or intangible world heritage by UNESCO.
It participates in the definition of the strategic addresses of projects relating to the tourist promotion of cultural and special landscape itineraries.
Director of Department II
+ 39 06 6723 4963 email@example.com
- Anna Pellegrino Ales SpA Secretary +39 06 6723 4946 room 338 - 3° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- Roberto Serangeli Secretary, Museum layouts, events + 39 06 6723 4725 room 346 - 3° floor email@example.com
- Federica Canitano Ales SpA Secretary + 39 06 6723 4945 room 337 - 3° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- Massimo Spadoni Ales SpA Secretary + 39 06 6723 4959 room 337 - 3° floor email@example.com
- Anna Maria Tarantino Museum standards and management of museums + 39 06 6723 4920 room 332 - 3° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- MARIA SOLE CARDULLI Museum standards and management of museums, National Museum System + 39 06 6723 4994 room 333 - 3° floor email@example.com
- Michela Cascasi Museum standards and management of museums, National Museum System +39 06 6723 4977 room 333 - 3° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- Lorenzo Croci Ales SpA National Museum System +39 06 6723 4324 room 341 - 3° floor email@example.com
- Francesca Stella Ales SpA National Museum System +39 06 6723 4748 room 341 - 3° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- VALERIA DI GIUSEPPE DI PAOLO Museum standards and management of museums + 39 06 6723 4962 room 344 - 3° floor email@example.com
- Vito Giuseppe Gurrado Museum standards and management of museums +39 06 6723 4315 room 332 - 3° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- Alessandro Posocco Ales SpA Museum standards and management of museums +39 06 6723 4830 room 341 - 3° floor email@example.com
- Marco Poggioli Ales SpA Museum standards and management of museums +39 06 6723 4313 room 345 - 3° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- Raffaella di Lecce Ales SpA Museum standards and management of museums +39 06 6723 4966 room 345 - 3° floor email@example.com
- ELENA CAGIANO DE AZEVEDO Communication and promotion + 39 06 6723 4883 room 341 - 3° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- Valentina Catagnano Communication and promotion + 39 06 6723 4948 room 335 - 3° floor email@example.com
- Mario Grossi Ales SpA Communication and promotion + 39 06 6723 4777 room 342 - 3° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- Alessandro Guasti Ales SpA Communication and promotion + 39 06 6723 4850 room 342 - 3° floor email@example.com
- Maria Letizia Manzone Ales SpA Communication and promotion + 39 06 6723 4972 room 335 - 3° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- Gabriella Cetorelli Accessibility to cultural places + 39 06 6723 4914 room 344 - 3° floor email@example.com
- Federica Zalabra International relations + 39 06 6723 4842 room 334 - 3° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- Francesca Condo' International relations + 39 06 6723 4888 room 334 - 3° floor email@example.com
- Tiziana Morana Museum layouts + 39 06 6723 4727 room 346 - 3° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
- Alessandra Gobbi DECLARATION OF CULTURAL INTEREST AND GOODS ON LOAN + 39 06 6723 4488 room 336 - 3° floor email@example.com
- Silvia Trisciuzzi DECLARATION OF CULTURAL INTEREST AND GOODS ON LOAN +39 06 6723 4861 room 336 - 3° floor firstname.lastname@example.org
State museums with special autonomy
The Directorate-General exercises powers of management, address, coordination and control over the following institutions and museums of considerable national interest, with scientific, financial, accounting and organisational autonomy.
- Galleria dell'Accademia di Firenze Director Cecille Hollberg + 39 055 098 7100 email@example.com
- Gallerie Estensi di Modena Director Martina Bagnoli + 39 059 439 5707 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Gallerie Nazionali d'arte antica di Roma Director Flaminia Gennari Santori + 39 06 481 4591 email@example.com
- Galleria nazionale delle Marche Director Luigi Gallo + 39 0722 2760 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Galleria nazionale dell’Umbria Director Marco Pierini + 39 075 5866 8415 email@example.com
- Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli Director Paolo Giulierini + 39 081 442 2149 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Reggio Calabria Director Carmelo Malacrino + 39 0965 898 272 email@example.com
- Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Taranto Director Eva Degl'Innocenti + 39 099 453 2112 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Musei del Bargello Director Paola D'Agostino + 39 055 238 8606 email@example.com
- Palazzo Ducale di Mantova Director Stefano L'Occaso + 39 0376 352 100 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Palazzo Reale di Genova Director ALESSANDRA GUERRINI + 39 010 271 0236 email@example.com
- Parco archeologico di Paestum Director Executive officer Maria Luisa Rizzo + 39 0828 811 023 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Musei Reali di Torino Director Enrica Pagella + 39 011 5220 440 email@example.com
- Complesso monumentale della Pilotta Director Simone VERDE + 39 0521 233 309 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Museo delle Civiltà Director Executive officer Loretta Paderni + 39 06 5926 148 email@example.com
- Museo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia Director Valentino NIZZO + 39 06 3226 571 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Museo storico e Parco del Castello di Miramare Director Andreina Contessa + 39 040 224 143 email@example.com
- Parco archeologico dei Campi Flegrei Director FABIO PAGANO +39 081 199 362 89 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Parco archeologico dell'Appia antica Director SIMONE QUILICI +39 06 477 881 email@example.com
- Parco archeologico di Ercolano Director Francesco SIRANO + 39 081 7324 315 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Parco archeologico di Ostia antica Director Alessandro D'Alessio + 39 06 5635 8036 email@example.com
- Villa Adriana e Villa D'Este Director Andrea BRUCIATI + 39 0774 312 070 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Museo nazionale d'Abruzzo Director Executive officer Federica Zalabra +39 0862 28420
- Palazzo Reale di Napoli Director Mario Epifani +39 081 5808 255 email@example.com
- Parco archeologico di Sibari Director Filippo Demma +39 0981 79166 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Pinacoteca nazionale di Bologna Director Maria Luisa Pacelli +39 051 4209 411 email@example.com
- Museo archeologico nazionale di Cagliari Director Francesco Muscolino +39 070 655 911 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Museo Nazionale di Matera Director Annamaria Mauro +39 0835 256 211
- MUSEO NAZIONALE DELL'ARTE DIGITALE Director Executive officer Emanuela Daffra
- Parco archeologico di Cerveteri e Tarquinia Director Executive officer Stefano Petrocchi
- Parco archeologico di Sepino Director Executive officer Francesco Sirano
- Pinacoteca nazionale di Siena Director Executive officer Stefano Casciu
Among the museums of considerable national interest with special autonomy, the following Institutions depend functionally on the Directorate-General.
- Galleria Borghese Director Francesca Cappelletti + 39 06 841 3979 email@example.com
- Gallerie dell'Accademia di Venezia Director GIULIO MANIERI ELIA + 39 041 522 2247 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Gallerie degli Uffizi Director Eike Schmidt + 39 055 238 8651 email@example.com
- Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea di Roma Director Cristiana Collu + 39 06 322 981 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Museo di Capodimonte Director Sylvain Bellenger + 39 081 749 9111 email@example.com
- Museo Nazionale Romano Director Stéphane Verger + 39 06 480 201 firstname.lastname@example.org
- PARCO ARCHEOLOGICO DEL COLOSSEO Director Alfonsina RUSSO +39 06 699 841 email@example.com
- PARCO ARCHEOLOGICO DI POMPEI Director Gabriel Zuchtriegel + 39 081 857 5111 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Pinacoteca di Brera Director James Bradburne + 39 02 7226 3264 email@example.com
- Reggia di Caserta Director TIZIANA MAFFEI + 39 0823 277 468 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Vittoriano e Palazzo Venezia Director Edith Gabrielli +39 06 67231
Direzioni regionali Musei
The Complexes, decentralised structures of the Directorate-General, coordinate and promote museum systems at regional level, favouring the creation of integrated services and guaranteeing standardised levels of quality.
They guarantee the public use and development of institutions and cultural places throughout the region, assigned to or managed by the State.
Their job is to define strategies and common development aims for the museums under their jurisdiction, ensuring the most extensive use of cultural heritage.
INTEGRATED MUSEUM SYSTEMS
They define shared strategies and development goals in the area of jurisdiction.
They coordinate all the activities involved in the management, development, communication and promotion of the national museum system within the region.
They promote the integration of cultural use routes and cultural tourism itineraries.
- Abruzzo museum complex Director Federica Zalabra + 39 0862 28420 email@example.com
- Basilicata museum complex Director Executive officer Annamaria Mauro + 39 0835 256 211 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Calabria museum complex Director Executive officer Filippo Demma + 39 0984 795 639 email@example.com
- Campania museum complex Director MARTA GIUSEPPINA RAGOZZINO + 39 081 2294 454 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Emilia Romagna museum complex Director Giorgio Cozzolino + 39 051 420 9411 email@example.com
- Friuli Venezia Giulia museum complex Director Andreina Contessa + 39 040 419 4711 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Lazio museum complex Director Stefano Petrocchi + 39 06 6999 4251 email@example.com
- Rome museum comples Director Mariastella Margozzi firstname.lastname@example.org
- Liguria museum complex Director ALESSANDRA GUERRINI + 39 010 2710 222 email@example.com
- Lombardy museum complex Director Emanuela Daffra + 39 02 802 941 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Marche museum complex Director Luigi Gallo + 39 0722 2760 email@example.com
- Molise museum complex Director Executive officer Francesco Sirano + 39 0874 43131 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Piedmont museum complex Director Elena De Filippis + 39 011 5641 711 email@example.com
- Apulia museum complex Director Luca Mercuri + 39 080 5285 231 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Sardinia museum complex Director Executive officer Francesco Muscolino + 39 070 34281 email@example.com
- Tuscany museum complex Director Stefano Casciu + 39 055 2718 9750 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Umbria museum complex Director Marco Pierini + 39 075 58668415 email@example.com
- Veneto museum complex Director Daniele Ferrara + 39 041 2967 611 firstname.lastname@example.org
Technical-scientific committee for museums and the cultural economy
Technical-scientific committees are Ministerial advisory bodies, working particularly with the Directorates in the sector.
The Directorate-General of Museums, in pursuing its activity and for matters of its own jurisdiction, engages the services of the Technical-scientific committee for museums and the cultural economy. The advisory body is chaired by Fabio Donato and its members are Paola Dubini, Pierluigi Sacco and Maria Utili, and it performs the following functions:
- it forwards proposals for the definition of plans and programmes for cultural heritage and landscape aimed at encouraging an increase in resources destined to the sector;
- it expresses opinions upon request of the Secretary General or the Directorate-General, and forwards proposals on matters of a technical-economic nature, concerning cultural heritage operations.
Museums in Italy
WHAT IS A MUSEUM?
“Museums are non-profit, permanent institutions in the service of society and its development. They are open to the public and perform research, with tangible and intangible evidence of mankind and man’s environment; they acquire it, conserve it, communicate it and display it for study, entertainment and educational purposes, promoting awareness of it among the public and the scientific community”.
State museums are technically-scientifically autonomous and perform functions of defence and development of the collections in them, insuring them and promoting their use by the public.
The storage, enhancement and communication of museums are aimed at promoting knowledge and public fruition of cultural heritage, envisaged by art. 9 of the Italian Constitution, and are organised according to a management plan.
The public accessibility of the collections means that they will be conserved, to guarantee their physical integrity; and kept in order, to ensure their cultural integrity. Every museum aims to optimise public accessibility and maximise the satisfaction of visitors’ needs (cognitive, aesthetic and social).
Museums perform research, with tangible and intangible evidence of mankind and man’s environment.
On the basis of the UNESCO Convention to protect intangible cultural heritage (17 October 2003, implemented in Italy in 2007):
“intangible cultural heritage means the practices, representations, expressions, knowledge, skills – as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts and cultural spaces associated therewith – that communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals recognize as part of their cultural heritage. (…)” (art. 1).
“The intangible cultural heritage, as defined in paragraph 1 above, is manifested inter alia in the following domains:
- oral traditions and expressions, including language as a vehicle of the intangible cultural heritage;
- performing arts;
- social practices, rituals and festive events;
- knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe;
- traditional craftsmanship.” (art. 2)
Brief history of museums in Italy [expand]
After the Unification of Italy (1861) and with the laws of suppression of the ecclesiastic organisations (1867), the State acquired the collections and museums of the pre-unification states, with the sole exception of the Vatican Museums, and new national museums were set up, without, however, creating an integrated system with civic and local museums, which, in the long-term, produced a gap in the management of cultural heritage between the State and other territorial authorities.
EARLY 20th CENTURY
In the years leading up to the First World War, the adoption and reform of the first law on protection (between 1902 and 1909), together with the reorganisation of the Directorate-General of antiquities and fine arts, led to the birth of the Superintendence departments, to which the state museums were assigned.
In the overall situation of rebirth that distinguished the years following the Second World War, museum life recommenced. In 1950, there were 451 museums in Italy, including monumental complexes and residences. In the 1970s, while local authority museums obtained legal acknowledgement as ‘non-state’ (Law 22 September 1960, no. 1080), the Parliamentary Commission appointed to study an administrative arrangement for cultural assets, reported the opportunity to give most state museums independence and to adopt common legislation for all state and local authority museums, in order to overcome the problems of concentration ad coordination of the respective territorial functions.
With the mandate laws of the 70s, responsibility in terms of setting up, organising and operating museums was transferred from the State to the Regions, producing a heterogeneous effect and a generally disarticulated management of cultural heritage. Within the scope of the territorial responsibilities of the Superintendence departments, the coeval institution of the Ministry of cultural and environmental heritage (1975) continued to sacrifice the autonomy of state museums.
STANDARDS FOR MUSEUMS
The museum community tried to achieve reorganisation, in a system integrated with Legislative Decree no. 112 of 1998 (the final act in the decentralisation process launched by the founding fathers). The Regions and Independent Provinces were called upon to work on cultural assets, playing a subordinate and complementary role to that of the State. The proposal to transfer some of the state museums to the territorial organisations envisaged by art. 150, came to nothing.
The Decree led to the production of the “Act of address on technical-scientific criteria and operation and development standards for museums”. The provision – triggered by the joint commitment of the Conference of Regions, local authorities, the Ministry of cultural heritage and activities, and the Italian National Committee of the ICOM – restored dignity to museums in a context characterised by innovative principles sanctioned by the Cultural Heritage and Landscape Code (Decree-Law no. 42 dated 22 January 2004).
TOWARDS THE NATIONAL MUSEUM SYSTEM
In 2004, the Cultural Heritage and Landscape Code relaunched the integrated vision of Italian cultural heritage in observance of art. 9 of the Republican Constitution. With the Code, museums finally stopped, also at legislative level, being static containers of objects or collections of objects, and became “permanent structures which acquire, conserve, order and display cultural heritage for the purposes of education and study” (art. 101). This made it necessary to create a charter and regulations, to observe determined technical-scientific criteria and to have an organisation and professionals to staff it.
With its reiterated call for collaboration by State, Regions, local authorities and metropolitan cities, the Code opened the way to a global rethink of the system of protection and management of Italian cultural heritage, enabling the reform of the Ministry of cultural heritage and activities and tourism (Decree of the President of the Coucil of Ministers no. 171 of 2014), which set up the new Directorate-General of Museums.
A MANAGEMENT FOR GOVERNANCE
The proliferation of museums that distinguished Italy in the last twenty years of the 20th century (1631 in 1980, 3311 in 1996), is confirmed by the results of the ISTAT survey carried out in 2011: with 3,847 museums registered, Italy continues to be the “country of the widespread museum”. The overall museum sector is not only rich but is also quite young. In this evolving scenario, the first museum standards were established in 2001 and the minimum standardised quality levels were prepared for the development activities envisaged by the Code. The national museum system was launched and became reality, and the Directorate-General of Museums now takes over its direction.
THE IDENTITY OF MUSEUMS
Every museum has its own charter, drawn up in compliance with the “Act of address on technical-scientific criteria and development standards for museums” (Ministerial Decree 10 May 2001), and its own financial statements, created in compliance with principles of publicity and transparency, which highlights the planning and results of its financial and accounting management.
The fact that every museum has a charter and regulations, even if it doesn’t have the legal status of an independent authority, is a minimum requisite for the recognition of a museum. To be able to talk about a museum, there has to be a written deed declaring its aims and functions, and its governance and management must be regulated.
On the basis of the “Act of address on technical-scientific criteria and development standards for museums”:
“Every museum must have a charter and/or written regulations which, regardless of the deed of constitution, comply with the general definition of a museum, clearly indicates:
- its nature as a permanent, non-profit body;
- the museum’s mission and objectives;
- the forms of governance and management;
- the financial organisation and accounting system;
- staff regulations;
- structural equipment and safety regulations;
- general principles for management and care of the collections;
- general principles of provision of services to the public;
- methods used to collect details on the activity and management of the museum;
- the tasks and functions that the museum intends to undertake with reference to the territorial context, and within the sphere of a possible organisation in associated form.
The main responsibility of equipping museums that depend on them with a charter and/or structured regulations, falls to the Organisation that owns them or to the Management.
The museum’s governing organisation must approve and publish a plan which identifies the annual and long-term aims, in compliance with the museum charter and/or regulations”.
Every museum has five different functional areas, each assigned to the management of one or more staff units:
- care and management of collections, study, education and research;
- marketing, fundraising, services and relations with the public, public relations;
- administration, finance and management of human resources;
- structures, layouts and security.
The museum director is the keeper and the interpreter of the museum’s identity and mission, observing the Ministry’s instructions.
The Faro Convention, promoted by the European Council and in force since 2011, recently signed by Italy, is the main model of reference. This model envisages a synergy between public institutions and stakeholders for the defence, development and transmission – with shared supporting actions – of cultural heritage to future generations.
The Directorate-General guarantees its operating support for the creation of Foundations of participation, or other management models capable of planning and coordinating cultural development and tourism strategies, and of incorporating them with the infrastructures present and the resources that represent the identity of an area.
CONTROL AND ASSESSMENT STANDARDS
In keeping with the standards established by the “Act of address on technical-scientific criteria and operating and development standards for museums”, the Directorate-General of Museums prepares operating and development standards for museums and checks their observance by state museums. It also assesses individual managements in terms of expense, efficiency and effectiveness, as well as the quality of services of use and development.
The “Act of address on technical-scientific criteria and operating and development standards for museums” establishes minimum requisites, reference values, acts due, guidelines, operational criteria and procedures. It is a quality manual, a helpful diagnostic tool, also for the self-assessment of the situation in which Italian museums find themselves.
The text is split into eight reference areas: I Legal status; II Operational layout; III Structures; IV Personnel; V Security; VI Management of collections; VII Relations with the public and relative services; VIII Relations with the territory.
The instructions and indications contained in the ministerial decree have different degrees of effectiveness in relation to those to whom they are addressed. Instructions concerning the safety of people and things cannot be avoided, while there is much room for discretion with regard to promotion and educational activities.
Among the very few obligations clearly explained in the text, two are indicated as unavoidable:
- equipping the museum with a charter or regulations;
- clearly identifying the director of the collections and activities.
The “Act of address” is an opportunity for recognition and affirmation of rights and obligations, which opens up prospects for informed and responsible accreditation in the museum world.
THE NATIONAL MUSEUM SYSTEM
The Ministry of Cultural Heritage aims to create a network of Italian museums and integrate museum services and activities.
All the museums organised in observance of the “Act of address on technical-scientific criteria and operating and development standards for museums” can join the National museum system.
It comprises state museums and, where special agreements have been entered into, every other public or private museum, including the scientific, university and demo-ethno-anthropological museums.
It is split into regional museum systems and city museum systems. The methods of organisation and use of this national network are established by the Directorate-General of Museums, which is responsible for the promotion, development and creation of the System, in order to encourage constant communication between the various public and private museum organisations in the area, and to generate an integrated offering, along with activities and services to the public.
The new organisation of state museums consists of 30 Museums of considerable national importance, with special autonomy, and more than 500 institutions including museums, archaeology areas and parks and monuments distributed throughout Italy. These are managed by 17 Regional museum complexes – with the exception of the Special Statute Regions of Valle d’Aosta, Trentino Alto Adige and Sicily.
MUSEUMS WITH SPECIAL AUTONOMY
In 2014/2015, the first 20 museums with scientific, financial, accounting and organisational independence were created: Galleria Borghese, Gallerie degli Uffizi, Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea di Roma, Gallerie dell’Accademia di Venezia, Museo di Capodimonte, Pinacoteca di Brera, Reggia di Caserta, Galleria dell’Accademia di Firenze, Gallerie Estensi di Modena e Ferrara, Gallerie Nazionali d’arte antica di Roma, Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli, Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Reggio Calabria, Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Taranto, Parco archeologico di Paestum, Palazzo Ducale di Mantova, Palazzo Reale di Genova, Polo Reale di Torino, Galleria Nazionale delle Marche and Galleria Nazionale dell’Umbria.
In 2016, with the second phase of the reform on cultural heritage, the number of autonomous museums rose to 30. New cultural institutions and independent archaeology parks were set up: Complesso monumentale della Pilotta di Parma (Biblioteca palatina, Galleria Nazionale, Museo Archeologico Nazionale), Musei delle Civiltà all’EUR (Museo Nazionale Preistorico e Etnografico, Museo nazionale delle arti e tradizioni popolari, Museo dell’Alto Medioevo), Museo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia, Museo Nazionale Romano, Museo storico e Parco del Castello di Miramare a Trieste, Parco Archeologico dell’Appia Antica, Parco archeologico dei Campi Flegrei (Bagnoli, Baia, Bacoli e Pozzuoli), Parco archeologico di Ercolano, Parco archeologico di Ostia Antica, Villa Adriana e Villa d’Este (Tivoli).
The Special Superintendence for the Colosseum and the Archaeological Area of Rome and the Special Superintendence for Pompeii still hold special autonomy.
REGIONAL MUSEUM COMPLEXES
Regional museum complexes guarantee the public service of use and development of institutions and cultural places, assigned to the State or to its management, throughout the territory, defining shared strategies and objectives in terms of assessment, in relation to the territorial sphere in question. The complexes promote the integration of cultural processes of use and consequent cultural tourism itineraries.
In 2016, the map of museums and cultural places assigned to the management of the Regional museum complexes was further expanded.
law and texts of reference
The Italian law and texts of reference:
- Ministerial Decree dated 21 February 2018 n. 113, “Adoption of uniform minimum standards of quality for public museums and cultural places and activation of the National Museum System”
- Ministerial Decree dated 07 February 2018 n. 88, amending the Decree dated 23 December 2014 “Organisation and operation of State Museums”
- Ministerial Decree 12 January 2017, “Adaptation of the Special Superintendencies to align them with international standards for museums and places of culture”
- Ministerial Decree dated 23 January 2016, “Reorganisation of the Ministry of cultural heritage and activities and tourism in compliance with article 1, paragraph 327, of Law no. 208, dated 28 December 2015”
- Ministerial Decree dated 14 October 2015, amending the Decree dated 23 December 2014 “Organisation and operation of State Museums”
- Ministerial Decree dated 6 October 2015, “Granting of state cultural properties for use by private parties”
- Decree-Law no. 146, dated 20 September 2015 “Urgent measures for the use of the nation’s historical and artistic heritage”
- Ministerial Decree dated 23 December 2014, “Organisation and operation of State Museums”
- Decree of the President of the Council of Ministers no. 171, dated 29 August 2014, “Regulation of organisation of the Ministry of cultural heritage and activities and tourism, of offices of direct collaboration of the Ministry and the Independent organisation for the assessment of performance”
- Decree-Law no. 83, dated 31 May 2014, “Urgent provisions for the defence of cultural heritage, the development of culture and the relaunch of tourism”, converted with amendments into Law no. 106, dated 29 July 2014 and subsequent amendments
- Decree Law no. 91, dated 8 August 2013, “Urgent provisions for the defence, development and relaunch of cultural heritage and tourism” (known as “Valore Cultura”), converted with amendments by Law no. 112, dated 7 October 2013
- Ministerial Decree dated 18 April 2012, “Adoption of guidelines for the set-up and development of archaeology parks”
- Legislative Decree no. 42, dated 22 January 2004, “Cultural Heritage and Landscape Code”, and subsequent amendments
- Ministerial Decree dated 10 May 2001, “Act of address on technical-scientific criteria and operation and development standards for museums”
- Ministerial Decree no. 507, dated 11 December 1997, “Regulation for the institution of entrance tickets to monuments, museums, galleries, ancient excavations, monumental parks and gardens belonging to the State”, and subsequent amendments
International texts of reference:
- UNESCO Recommendation concerning the protection and promotion of Museums and collections, their diversity and their role in society, Paris 2015
- ICOM Code of Ethics for Museums, 2013
- Council of Europe Framework Convention on the Value of Cultural Heritage for Society, Faro 2005, signed by Italy on 27 February 2013
- UNESCO Convention for the safeguarding of the intangible cultural heritage, Paris 2003, ratified by Italy on 27 September 2007 with Law no. 167
- UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, Paris 2005